Friday, October 12, 2018

Alles neue ist das gut vergessene alte: österreich hat Bond auf der blockchain veröffentlicht

Alles neue ist das gut vergessene alte: österreich hat Bond auf der blockchain veröffentlicht

Alles neue ist das gut vergessene alte: österreich hat Bond auf der blockchain veröffentlicht


Staatsanleihen oder Anleihen sind ein Papier, das bestätigt, dass die Regierung eines bestimmten Staates dem Eigentümer dieses Wertpapiers einen bestimmten Geldbetrag schuldet. Durch die Einführung der blockchain für die Ausgabe von Staatsanleihen wurde österreich das Dritte Land, nach Australien und Thailand, die sich für eine solche Innovation entschieden. Ob eine solche Entscheidung die bürokratischen Mechanismen erheblich beeinflussen und den Prozess des Vertragsabschlusses schnell und bequem für alle machen kann-haben sich in unserem Material verstanden.

Bequeme Lösungen für den großen Markt

Auf dem Sekundärmarkt haben Staatsanleihen einen Anteil von $ 22.166 Billionen. Trotz solcher signifikanten Indikatoren ist das Verfahren für die Ausgabe und den Abschluss von Verträgen — ein sehr zeitaufwändiges und langes Verfahren für alle Parteien. Selbst die kleinsten Punkte des anleihevertrags sind verpflichtet, von Auftragnehmern, Vermittlern und der Bank reguliert zu werden. Darüber hinaus ist dieser Prozess aufgrund der Bürokratie-Kosten ziemlich teuer. "Sie ändern die traditionelle" manuelle "Ausgabe von Anleihen in etwas, das Online sofort passieren kann", erklärte James Wall, Geschäftsführer der australischen Commonwealth Bank.

Im Finanzsystem werden Staatsanleihen für verschiedene Zwecke verwendet, insbesondere für andere Formen von Transaktionen. Es gab viele Fälle, in denen Kontrahenten keine Staatsanleihen erfüllen konnten, die Sie anderen Marktteilnehmern Schulden.

«Diese zusätzliche Sicherheit fördert ein hohes Maß an Vertrauen in die Auktion für österreichische Staatsanleihen und schafft einen guten Ruf in österreich auf dem Markt", sagte Markus Sticks, Geschäftsführer des österreichischen Finanzministeriums.

Mit blockchain können Transaktionen transparent gemacht werden, und alle änderungen werden sofort sichtbar sein. Dies wird die Zeit, die benötigt wird, um Informationen zwischen den Parteien zu übertragen, erheblich reduzieren. "Die blockchain-Technologie wird von Regierungen in fast allen Ländern als Werkzeug anerkannt, das verschiedene Ausgaben, einschließlich bürokratischer drawings, erheblich reduzieren kann. Die Ausgabe von österreichischen Anleihen ist ein weiterer Schritt zur Anerkennung der Effizienz und Nützlichkeit der Technologie. Soweit ich weiß, wird dies nur die Art und Weise berühren, wie Underwriter, Registrierung und Bond-Emission ausgewählt werden, aber den Algorithmus selbst nicht ändern. Das heißt, der gesamte bürokratische Prozess wird auf die blockchain mit der anschließenden Anwendung von Smart-Verträgen übertragen, die sicherlich die Abstimmung der notwendigen Dokumente zwischen den Teilnehmern der Anleihe und die Transparenz der anschließenden Behandlung von Wertpapieren unter den Bond-Inhaber beschleunigen wird", - kommentierte DeCenter offizieller Vertreter der kryptobank Wirex Roman zabuga.

So haben die österreichischen Behörden Anleihen auf der Ethereum-blockchain mit einem Gesamtwert von $1.35 Milliarden ausgegeben. » Durch die Schaffung eines Beratenden finanzrats beim Finanzministerium entwickeln wir Strategien, um österreich optimal von diesen Ereignissen profitieren zu können", sagte der österreichische Finanzminister Hartwig Loger.

Aber es ist noch unklar, was die österreichischen Behörden erreichen wollen: Dritte vollständig auszuschließen oder einfach den anleiheprozess bequemer zu machen. "In einer idealen dezentralen Welt werden Vermittler ausgeschlossen und der Emittent mit dem Kreditnehmer wird direkt kommunizieren. Vielleicht ist es das, und werden Veranstalter der Unterbringung der österreichischen bondov " machen-Roman zabuga hat beigetragen.

Australischer Ansatz

Australien befindet sich in der Spitze der Länder, die blockchain in verschiedene Sektoren der Wirtschaft und Produktion einführen. Im Spätsommer veröffentlichte die Australische Commonwealth Bank (CBA) zusammen mit der Weltbank Anleihen von 73.16 Millionen US-Dollar.

Das Projekt, das Blockchain Operated New Debt Instrument (BOND-I) genannt hat, wurde vom Zentrum für die Exzellenz von Blockchain Entwickelt, das in das eigene innovative CBA-Labor einsteigt .

«Ich glaube, das ist ein guter Anfang. Finanzinstrumente wie Anleihen werden leicht auf blockchain übertragen, aber das ist nicht genug. Der wirkliche nutzen wird kommen, wenn verschiedene Institute und Branchen blockchain verwenden», sagte der unabhängige Entwickler Matthew Di Ferrante.

Obwohl das Ethereum-Protokoll laut den Entwicklern in der CBA die beste Option für den Start des Projekts ist, sind Sie bereit, Anwendungsfälle und andere blockchain zu berücksichtigen.

"Es ist schön zu sehen, dass... das von der CBA erstellte System wird zusammen mit der Weltbank koordiniert und eine gewisse Dezentralisierung ermöglicht, aber ich möchte klarere, verteiltere Projekte auch für private blockchain sehen», fügte Di Ferrante hinzu.

Die Ergebnisse wurden auch von der Führung der Weltbank gut aufgenommen. «Wir begrüßen ein großes Interesse an diesem deal und werden weiterhin nach Technologien suchen, die die Kapitalmärkte sicherer und effizienter machen können», sagte der Schatzmeister der Weltbank Arunta OTE. Obwohl Krypto-Enthusiasten im Allgemeinen mit der Offenheit der Weltbank zur blockchain zufrieden sind, kann die Position des weltbankchefs Jim En Kim alle verfügbaren Kompromisse und Fortschritte Durchlaufen, die während der Einführung von blockchain in das bürokratische Gerät erzielt wurden. Seiner Meinung nach sind digitale Vermögenswerte nichts anderes als ein normales Ponzi — Schema.

Es ist erwähnenswert, dass die Plattform für die Veröffentlichung von Bond auf der blockchain nur das Letzte Glied in einer bereits ziemlich langen Kette von australischen Krypto — Innovationen ist. Also, im Land wollen die blockchain an der australischen Börse zu implementieren, und auch die Technologie in der logistischen Infrastruktur zu nutzen.

"Australien hat einen interessanten Ansatz zu diesem Thema. Eine solche Offenheit gegenüber der Krypto-Industrie schafft Australien einen Ruf als Branchenführer", meint der Gründer Des datadash-Kanals auf YouTube, Nicholas Merten.

Thai Version

Ein weiteres Land, das Extreme Loyalität gegenüber der blockchain — Anwendung in der Regierung zeigt, ist Thailand, der einen Registrar-Bereich startet, um die Bürokratie zu reduzieren und den Sekundärmarkt zu stimulieren. Die Bond Market Association (tmba) kündigte diese Initiative bereits im Juli an. Das Hauptziel des neuen Projekts ist es, von einem veralteten bürokratischen System zu einem modernen, komfortablen Verfahren zu wechseln.

Darüber hinaus erhalten die Aufsichtsbehörden, Unternehmen und Emittenten Zugang zu Zinssätzen und anderen anleihendaten. "Trotz des potenziellen Wachstums der Marktliquidität dauert die Ausgabe von Anleihen immer noch ziemlich lange. Potenziell können diese bürokratischen drawings einen signifikanten negativen Effekt auf das Wachstum von Unternehmensanleihen auf dem Sekundärmarkt haben, sagte tmba-Präsident Tada Phuttitada. - Der Prozess kann jedoch von 7-15 bis 3-4 Tagen reduziert werden. Obwohl es nicht so beeindruckend ist wie das weit verbreitete blockchain-Potenzial, ist es ein ermutigender Start für eine mögliche Umstrukturierung des anleiheprozesses.

Es ist erwähnenswert, DASS tbma-Pläne nicht darauf beschränkt sind. TBMA zielt darauf ab, eine «Bond-Münze» zu starten, um das digitalisierte Bond-System zu unterstützen. Der übergang von der Arbeit mit der Regierungsbüro zur modernen digitalisierten Prozedur kann wirklich große und Radikale Veränderungen in der Branche bedeuten.

Offensichtlich erfasst blockchain neue und neue Branchen. Und obwohl die schnelle Radikale Veränderung in allen Bereichen der Wirtschaft früh sprechen, denken die Regierungen vieler Länder ernsthaft über die Modernisierung Ihrer bürokratischen Geräte mit dezentralen Systemen.

Orakel-die Augur-Plattform bereitet sich auf das erste große Update vor

Orakel-die Augur-Plattform bereitet sich auf das erste große Update vor

Orakel-die Augur-Plattform bereitet sich auf das erste große Update vor


Am 5. Oktober berichteten Vertreter der dezentralen Augur-Plattform über die Bereitschaft zum ersten apdeit des Systems. Entwickler haben "geplante änderungen" gestartet, um die Augur v2-Version bereitzustellen, die aus technischer Sicht vereinfacht wird. Welche Updates betreffen das Netzwerk?

Nicht bereit Augur v2

Augur ist eine bekannte P2P-Open-Source-Plattform, mit der Sie Wetten und Prognosen (mit auszahlungsgarantie bei Erfolg) für alle Ereignisse machen können. Das System basiert auf Hunderten von Smart contracts von Ethereum mit seinen rep-Tokens. Geplante netzwerkupdates, wie Projektentwickler glauben, helfen, das System zu vereinfachen und es für neue Benutzer freundlicher zu machen. Die kommende Version von Augur v2 wird eine Reihe von Verbesserungen der internen Leistung der Plattform beinhalten, die die Verwirrung beseitigen, zusätzliche Kosten ausschließen und Risiken reduzieren sollen.

In Ihrem Blog erklären Augur, dass alle änderungen im Moment Indikativ sind und so bleiben, bis der Code vollständig geschrieben und überprüft wurde. Die Bereitstellung des Netzwerks erfordert zusätzliche manuelle Migration von REP zu einem neuen Satz von Augur Smart contracts, Sie werden alle Token aktualisieren und für die ERC-777 und ERC-20-Standards korrekt sein. Das Update ist mit der aktuellen Version des Projekts kompatibel und unterstützt alle ursprünglichen Funktionen, obwohl «spezifische änderungen das zugrunde liegende Protokoll beeinflussen».

Es wird auch ein umständliches Redesign geben, so viele Benutzer, die Plattform-App-Schnittstelle, wo es jetzt Probleme in den Abschnitten «Positionen», «Transaktionen» und FAQ gibt. Der Leiter der Augur Tom Kisar sagte, dass alle Wünsche der Einheit in der neuen Version berücksichtigt werden.

Grundlegende Netzwerkänderungen

Am meisten wird die Reform der Prozesse und die Vereinfachung des Handels auf Den Augur-Märkten berücksichtigt. Zum Beispiel unterstützt die Plattform derzeit zwei Versionen jeder Handelsfunktion, die, wie der forecast Foundation-Projektentwickler Alex Chapman sagte, «nicht wirklich funktionieren». Sobald ein Benutzer einem anderen erlaubt, eine gasgrenze einzustellen, wird der Handel beendet.

Eine andere änderung wird ein «sehr ineffizientes und Komplexes» System berühren, um sogenannte «Reporter» auszugleichen — Benutzer, die Informationen melden und die Ergebnisse von Ereignissen eingeben, die zum Beispiel ein Spiel oder eine Wahl gewonnen haben. Jetzt werden Gebühren für die Entschädigung an diese Netzteilnehmer an den bevorstehenden Vertrag gesendet, der sich alle 7 Tage ändert. Reporter können einen Anteil dieser Gebühren erhalten, indem Sie Augur-Token kaufen oder an Streitigkeiten teilnehmen und dann die Token kaufen, die Sie im Austausch erhalten. Dies ist ein sehr ineffizienter und komplexer Weg, um Reporter zu kompensieren.

In der zweiten Version wird das System eine Gebühr für einen Vertrag berechnen und Sie für das Haupt-Token der REP-Plattform verkaufen. Der intelligente Vertrag selbst wird zerstört. Dieses Verfahren ist laut Augur-Vertretern effektiv für Beiträge aller REP-Inhaber mit null-Kosten-Gas. So wird ein günstigeres Steuerregime erhalten.

Andere änderungen konzentrieren sich auch auf Transaktionsgebühren. Einige Reformation von Smart contracts, obwohl nicht genau angegeben, wird dazu beitragen, die Kosten für Gas um 25% oder mehr zu senken.

Aufmerksamkeit auf Risiken

Einige der geplanten änderungen von Augur v2 Zielen darauf ab, die Risiken zu reduzieren und zu nivellieren, die mit der Nutzung der Plattform selbst verbunden sind. Dank der kurzfristig geplanten Integration mit dem Dai-staiblecoin (positioniert von Entwicklern als kryptowährung, die das Problem der hohen Volatilität digitaler Assets löst) müssen Augur-Benutzer Nicht ständig den Wert des äthers ändern. Daher planen die Entwickler, ein unabhängigkeitskonzept für Projekte zu entwickeln, die auf der Plattform erstellt werden.

Andere änderungen sollen Augur klarer und objektiver in Bezug auf Informationen machen, die in Projekten enthalten sind, die innerhalb des Netzwerks erstellt werden. Schließlich wurde ursprünglich geplant, dass diese Märkte nur auf empirisch überprüfbare, Reale Ereignisse im Leben verweisen würden: ob es regnet, ob das Team gewonnen hat oder ob die Münze zu einem bestimmten Preis verloren hat. In der Praxis erstellen Benutzer Projekte, die auf rhetorischen philosophischen Fragen basieren: "gibt es Gott?"Und" wie man das richtige in einer bestimmten Situation tut " und so weiter.

Die Frage, ob der Markt als ungültig angesehen wird, wird von den REP-Besitzern gelöst, deren Token es Ihnen ermöglichen, an der Abstimmung teilzunehmen, um fragwürdige Projekte zu blockieren. Unsicherheit verwirrt Benutzer, oft verstehen viele nicht, auf welchen Märkten Sie Wetten können, und auf welchen nicht. Dadurch sinkt das Interesse an Augur, weil die Nutzer Ihre Preise in den Märkten verlieren können, die später als ungültig bezeichnet werden.

Um eine gewisse Klarheit zu gewährleisten, plant Augur, marktbilanzraten zu ermöglichen, wenn Benutzer die Entscheidungen und Meinungen anderer Netzwerkteilnehmer sehen können. Die Funktion zum hinzufügen einer Nachricht wird angezeigt, in der jeder seine Wahl argumentieren kann. Auch die Macher des Marktes werden in der Lage sein, eine höhere Anleihe Aktion zu bieten, um die Echtheit des Marktes und die Möglichkeit zu signalisieren, sicher darauf zu handeln.

Es ist geplant, dass Augur v2 den wettprozess beschleunigt. Im Moment hat der» zugewiesene Reporter " — die Adresse, die der Veranstalter des Marktes angegeben hat, drei Tage nach dem nachdenken, bevor andere Benutzer die berichtsgebühr abheben können. Jetzt wird die entscheidungsfrist auf einen Tag reduziert, alle wöchentlichen Wartezeiten zwischen den Runden der Streitigkeiten werden automatisch gelöscht. Der Benutzer-Wal kann den Prozess nicht zurückhalten.

Nicht darum, dass gefragt

Die bevorstehenden änderungen, die von Augur-Entwicklern vorgeschlagen wurden, werden wahrscheinlich die Benutzeroberfläche verbessern, neue Funktionen hinzufügen und die Arbeit auf Der Plattform verständlicher machen. Aber das ist nicht genau das, was die Teilnehmer des Netzwerks gefragt haben, da die Anforderungen in der "Wunschliste für Augur", die auf Reddit gepostet wurde, anders gesagt werden. Die Augur-Plattform und-Anwendung müssen die Navigation auf ui-Ebene (UI) vereinfachen, anstatt die Effizienz des Augur-Protokolls selbst zu verbessern, dessen Arbeit den Teilnehmern des Netzwerks entspricht.

Benutzer haben gesagt, dass Sie in der Lage sein wollen, nach offenen wahrheitsgemäßen Märkten nach Keywords in der überschrift zu suchen, nicht nur nach Tags, wie es jetzt gemacht wird, und Sie nicht nach Volumen, Liquidität oder alphabetisch Sortieren.

Crypto-exchanges suffer from the invasion of bots. The interests of bona fide investors are at risk.

Crypto-exchanges suffer from the invasion of bots. The interests of bona fide investors are at risk.



Experienced stock traders have long learned to use programs that facilitate the process of trading. It can be a semi-automatic trading advisors, with which you can make the right decision, and fully automatic program-bots. So they have attracted the attention of journalists.

On October 2, the Wall Street Journal published material on how automated bots manipulate the prices of digital assets. In this case we are talking about crypto-exchanges.

For those who trade Forex, trading advisors, bots, robots-this is not news. These programs usually track the price chart of the asset and find the optimal point to enter the market. Fully automated SOFTWARE does not involve the intervention of the trader in the trading process. It is noteworthy that on traditional stock exchanges (securities trading) such actions are prohibited. Thus, the new York stock exchange regularly monitors the correctness of trading operations and punishes violators.

Crypto-exchanges in the process of becoming adopted a lot from traditional exchanges. Capturadora similarly use the technical analysis, draw software. However, robots are not always used for legitimate purposes in crypto-exchanges. The Wall Street Journal believes that automated advisors have usurped crypto-exchanges and successfully manipulated the price of virtual assets: "Everyone knows about the hard swings of bitcoin, but not everyone knows that sometimes unscrupulous traders are behind it."

Andy Bromberg, Co-founder and CEO of the coinlist startup, told the Wall Street Journal that"the use of trading bots is flourishing in the market now; this is a danger both for investors and for the reputation of the market."

The strategy of bots in the cryptocurrency market, as a rule, is to create "fake" orders. Orders are formed with one purpose to provide the illusion of hype around the digital asset. Thus, the price is manipulated in the right direction, deceiving other investors. Fake orders are simply canceled at the right time. This situation is difficult to imagine on regulated traditional exchanges. Back in 2010, stock and futures exchanges put such trading tactics outside the law. But in the crypto market this is almost the norm.

A malicious strategy has forced more than one investor to part with a large sum of money. Thus, the hedge Fund Digital Virgil Capital lost a lot of money in ETH at the beginning of the year due to the actions of automatic trading robots of competitors. After that, the 80 million Fund had to get its own bots.

Stefan Qin, managing partner of Virgil Capital, told the Wall Street Journal that the Fund currently uses software bots on many crypto-platforms. And the main task in this case is to beat the bots of competitors.

A well-known capturador Kjetil Alerted that has been trading bitcoin since 2011, I am sure that the ability to use automated advisors on the stock market you need to make them public. And regulatory issues have nothing to do with it. "If everyone has the ability to manipulate the price, it means that no one will manipulate."

Himself Kjetil Alerted developed bot software Quatloo Trader. The advertisement stated that it was "the best tool for manipulating the crypto market".

On the one hand, the program simplifies the interaction of the trader with the market, offering built-in tools, which is a recognized and legitimate practice. On the other hand, the developer himself admits that he added several " manipulative "functions in relation to the price of the asset and called them"whale tools".

Bots on crypto-exchanges attracted the attention of the new York Prosecutor's office. Attorney General of new York Barbara underwood spoke in the spirit that the crypto market is too much manipulation. And at the moment, the whole market is very vulnerable and exposed to numerous risks, its integrity is in danger, because unscrupulous actions occur everywhere.

This problem is now more urgent than ever, because there are no rules prohibiting manipulative trading and the use of fraudulent trading strategies.

According to the Wall Street Journal, just last week, $90 million of illegal funds were sent to the crypto market through various exchanges.

It seems that the owners of crypto-exchanges need to seriously think about preserving their own reputation and introduce internal rules and restrictions on the example of traditional trading platforms.

Why is walking the only way out when bitcoin volatility is low?

Why is walking the only way out when bitcoin volatility is low?

Why is walking the only way out when bitcoin volatility is low?


The behavior of bitcoin has recently again puzzled traders and hodlers: what to do with the world's first cryptocurrency? What strategy to follow? According to the researcher of the main exchange cryptocurrency strategies, the answer is clear: to walk. Why he made such conclusions and how the low volatility of bitcoin in recent days can affect its relations with regulators, understood in our material.


Why is walking the best?

There are many different tools for obtaining relatively correct prediction of bitcoin price. But the main snag in the study of the most useful and valid methods lies in the fact that they do not have enough empirical scientific data. Because of this, we can draw only the simplest conclusions about the fairness of our technical analysis. There is a possibility that even if you trusted a particular technical analysis and you made a profit, you just got lucky. And it is possible that in the case when your predictions failed, your technical analysis is correct. How could that be? The fact is that market processes are probabilistic in nature, so we can make predictions only with a certain percentage of accuracy, which can never be equal to 100. Judging by the empirical data, Bollinger bands can become an effective indicator of the exchange analysis of the value of bitcoin.

In 2017, crypto-enthusiast Joris Bakker conducted a study in which he studied some stock strategies. The main objects of study were:

Support and resistance (Support and resistance rules) — an attempt to determine the levels below (above), which, apparently, have a fall price (increase). These levels are called the support and resistance levels respectively and are often defined as the local minimum and maximum. The rationale for the support and resistance levels is that investors tend to sell (buy) at the peak (low), which will lead to an increase in the price (fall) above (below) the previous high (low). The breakthrough of the support (resistance) level is considered as a trigger for further price movements in one direction, so a trend signal is generated, following the sale (purchase).

Average value of the balance (On-balance volume) is an indicator calculated according to the trading volume (Volume). It is important that in the method of its calculation it does not have an averaging model, and, therefore, is synchronous with the price indicator, and in some cases — even ahead.

Filtering strategy (Filter rules) — tracks trends by buying (selling) currency when it rises (falls) by a certain percentage after the last low (peak) value. The filter rule is defined as follows. If the price of a foreign currency (bitcoin) exceeds its last minimum by a predefined threshold of x%, use the local currency (dollar) and buy a foreign currency (bitcoin). When the currency price moves down at least % of the subsequent high, make a short sale of the foreign currency and buy the local currency with the proceeds. The position is maintained until the price of the foreign currency exceeds its last minimum by x% again, after which the above strategy is repeated.

Moving averages (Moving average rules) - a strategy that tries to track trends and identify the inevitable. Unlike filtering, moving average trading strategies are aimed at smoothing volatile time series.

Channel breakout-occurs when the price moves outside the channel defined by the minimum and maximum for the previous n time intervals. The channel occurs only when the maximum of the previous n time intervals is within x% of the minimum of the previous n time intervals, excluding the current price.

Bollinger bands-is a set of lines on which two standard deviations (positive and negative) from the simple moving average price of a security are built. The Bollinger Band, developed by well-known technical trader John Bollinger, usually has two standard deviations from the simple moving average, but can be adjusted to the user's preferences.

Bollinger Bands. Source.

Each of the presented trading strategies was compared with the usual hodling.

The results of the study showed the greatest efficiency of Bollinger bands, providing the greatest profit in the five-minute period. This strategy worked well with price deviations both up and down. In General, Bollinger bands showed the best performance during the periods of the greatest volatility. Bollinger bands were only effective when using many small price fluctuations.

However, due to transaction costs, all long positions lose compared to the control strategy of buying and holding. Thus, Bollinger bands-an effective strategy, although not more effective than the strategy of buying and holding. "Although it was determined beneficial to individual trading strategies, some technical trading rules used separately, as a rule, can not predict price movements. Since choosing only one strategy results in the loss of available information generated by the remaining strategies, we develop a neural network classification algorithm that combines trading signals or positions of several individual trading rules into a complex trading strategy. The new combined strategies outperform the most successful individual trading strategies and benchmarks based on performance indicators and break — even transaction costs," concludes Joris Bakker in his study.

Thus, profitable trading based on technical analysis is more likely to be suitable for machine learning algorithms than for Twitter predictors. And, despite the effectiveness of some of them, it is obvious that on the basis of the data obtained, it can be concluded that the good old hodling remains the best strategy.

Low volatility + regulators = love

It is worth noting that in the behavior of bitcoin, traditionally demonstrating a high degree of volatility, there have been serious changes over the past few days. This can also be seen as an indicator that the hodlers are on the right track. According to Highcharts, the bitcoin volatility index for the last 30 days was only 1.73%, and for the last 60 days — 2.58%.

Regulators are also likely to see a positive sign in bitcoin price stabilization. "Low volatility is also an indicator that price manipulation may have decreased," says FXEmpire financial expert Bob Mason. "After a wild roller coaster ride, bitcoin seems to have established long-term relationships with its investors, who seem to be with it for a long time now."

In General, the unstable pricing of bitcoin could be one of the main factors that prompted the SEC to abandon the ETF petitions.

For example, the SEC document, which explains the second rejection of Winklevoss Bitcoin Trust's petition to trade the first bitcoin ETF, notes that traders can manipulate trading on the Gemini Exchange due to low trading volumes.

"The impulse evaluation of bitcoin led to speculation about the future value of bitcoin, making it extremely volatile," the document says.

Thus, the low volatility of bitcoin is beneficial only to avid risk traders who are ready to play on the sharp jumps of a coin, but regulators and traders can be calm: the first has the opportunity to establish a legislative framework, and the second can not worry about their assets.

Did GRU fall into a crypto trap?

Did GRU fall into a crypto trap?



On October 3, the U.S. Department of justice filed charges against seven GRU officers, accusing them of a number of economic crimes, as well as cyber attacks. According to the Grand jury of the Western district of Pennsylvania in a published document, "in order to purchase the equipment that is necessary for hacking, the accused conspired to launder money through a network of transactions built in such a way as to use the apparent anonymity of cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin." Further, the document States that the use of bitcoin " allowed the accused to avoid direct contact with traditional financial institutions."


GRU and cryptocurrencies

As for the details of the alleged criminal manipulation of bitcoin, it was stated that the accused "registered several hundred e-mail addresses" to "there were no paper documents that would leave traces of all their transactions", it is specified that the purchase of equipment for hacking was carried out for bitcoins. But that's not all. It is claimed that GRU allegedly received bitcoins also thanks to mining, and the extracted cryptocurrencies were used to pay for a domain name on the Internet, to carry out phishing attacks, to obtain data on doping tests from 250 international athletes, as well as to pay for information services of other companies that are in the United States.

The topic of bitcoin "thrown" on the impeachment trump

What do all these accusations mean? It is noteworthy that three of the seven defendants appeared in the investigation of special Prosecutor Robert Mueller as alleged perpetrators of interference in the us elections, in particular, in the campaign for the election of the us President in 2016. That is, in the end, all the accusations against citizens and organizations of Russia fit into one line, which leads to the impeachment of the current us President Donald trump. And it turns out that this goal-setting of a number of investigations makes them obviously biased.

Trump's assumption that Muller's team is staffed mostly by supporters of Hillary Clinton, who lost the presidential election, was confirmed by the Washington Post. The Fact that the Grand jury, which under American law makes the indictments, going to those areas of the United States, where extremely low support for trump, also pointed out the former speaker of The house of Representatives of the American Congress newt Heinrich.

There are also gross factual errors: the GRU, like the KGB, does not exist in Russia. GRU ceased to exist in 2010, and instead of it, but not necessarily with the same tasks and functions, the Main Department of the General staff of Russia works. Errors even in such "little things" -it's not just annoying, it makes the outline of the charges look like some sloppy story, in which the GRU falls into a crypto-trap. Despite the fact that on the blockchain there is an opportunity to see those operations with bitcoins, which are mentioned in the documents of the us Department of justice, there is no solid evidence that these operations were made on the orders of any special service. What, then, is the secret meaning of this whole story?

And in the first investigation, and in the most recent, as well as in the interim, July document featured bitcoins, and the topic of their use has become cross-cutting, as in this case they say. Mueller's investigation says that bitcoins worth $ 95,000 were used to buy domain names and computer servers "in order to ensure anonymity." Muller's question that this was done in vain, clearly did not appear — what happened from February to October, when it is now stated that the use of bitcoins not only failed to ensure anonymity, but actually became the thread that allegedly "pulled" all the charges?

The logic of the us authorities: "bitcoin has no anonymity" - " tighten the screws»
Pedaling the theme of the lack of anonymity in bitcoin has become an obsession in the us power circles. On July 18, a few days after the interim report, the us Congress held hearings organized by the Committee on agriculture, entitled "Cryptocurrencies: an overview of new assets in the digital era". The managing partner of Andreesen Horowitz Scott Kupor, who took part in the debate, said that "bitcoins are really the most unsuccessful means to allegedly maintain their anonymity when transferring funds, since everything is recorded on the blockchain." He was supported by Lowell ness, managing partner of the law firm Perkins Coie, who said that"it is because of this property of bitcoin that evidence of Russia's interference in the us elections was found." Summing up, Congressman Mike Conoway said that "we can only pray that all the criminals of the world switched to cryptocurrencies, because then they will all be easy to catch." In the end, it all came down to giving more power to the already broad-based us administrative bodies, in particular FinCEN. Is focused on the bills H. R. 6411 — FinCEN Improvement Act of 2018 and H. R. 6721 — FinCEN Modernization Act of 2018.

Meanwhile, on September 7, during the hearings Held in the house of Representatives of the us Congress, Yaya Fanusier, Director of Analytics At the center for the study of sanctions and illegal financial transactions Of the Fund for the protection of democracies, said that cash us dollars often provide anonymity to criminals than bitcoins, and whether the cryptocurrency is capable of this is still a big question.

From investigations to bitcoin discredit

The fact that bitcoin works on the blockchain, and thus has all the records of transactions with it, as a result, means that there is no anonymity as such, but this fact has already been interpreted as a weakness of cryptocurrencies and their vulnerability to hacker attacks, as evidenced by the discussion in the Twitter account of former analyst of us intelligence services Jason Buttrill. However, this thesis is false: the bitcoin network has never been hacked since its inception, that is, in nine years.

All this looks like a planned campaign, which is based not only on the political goal outlined above, but also pursues an attempt to discredit bitcoin and cryptocurrencies in the broader sense of the word. In reality the United States is nothing more negative for the cryptocurrency than bitcoin, and to associate the intervention of the "omnipresent" agents of the GRU, in order to set up the society against the amount of cryptocoins.

The fact that with regard to cryptocurrencies in the us power circles, an incomprehensible delay in building clear rules is happening, it is obvious to everyone, including us congressmen, as stated by Tom Emmer and as evidenced by the letter dated September 19, signed by five congressmen, in which they turn to the IRS (us Ministry of taxes and fees) with the requirement not just to levy taxes on crypto-currency activities, but to work out measures for fiscal stimulation of new financial technologies. However, the Executive power of the United States is weak to respond to such calls from legislators.

Meanwhile, the us Department of homeland security, one of the country's 22 special services, emphasizes that cryptocurrencies are then easy to track when they are exchanged with Fiat. At the same time, the Department emphasizes that the volume of criminal transactions with cryptocurrencies is insignificant compared to how many such transactions are carried out with Fiat, in particular, with the us dollar. Based on statistics, all sorts of restrictions should not be subject to cryptocurrencies, and Fiat.

But there are those in Congress who support the General critical attitude of the us Executive power towards bitcoin. So, Congressman Emmanuel cleaver demanded that the cryptocurrency industry react to the fact that bitcoin is used for dishonest purposes. Cleaver joined those colleagues in Congress who, like bill Huizenga, said that " everyone thinks, and not whether bitcoin is a fish or a bird, and maybe it's a porcupine?"as well as brad Sherman, who demanded a ban on cryptocurrencies.

It is curious that the mining of cryptocurrencies, based on the presented accusations against Russia, becomes an "unreliable occupation", which means that the US authorities can go the way of China and ban this activity: at least, economic attempts to "strangle" it have already been made. For miners in the States of Washington and new York, energy tariffs were significantly raised, which now turned out to be higher not only for those intended for individuals, but also for companies from other sectors of the economy.

Politics and cryptocurrency: nothing good in such a " symbiosis»

How should the cryptocurrency industry react? The mysterious origin of bitcoin should not scare anyone. As at the time the Internet was the development of the us Department of defense, and bitcoin can be in some sense a product of the CIA, as Natalia Kaspersky said, although unlikely.

For the crypto-currency industry, an important moment comes: its voice should be clearly heard not only on the meetups and discussion branches on Reddit, it is necessary that new financial technologies begin to work for the benefit of humanity as quickly as possible. Blockchain and cryptocurrencies are not only fast, cheap and secure financial transactions, but also an effective fight against corruption, the solution to all the urgent problems of mankind — from improving the quality of food to solving the problem of traffic jams and lack of Parking spaces. Mixing politics into the issue of the development of mass use of cryptocurrencies only creates obstacles to this process: the arguments of the cryptocurrency community in defending its point of view on all "floors" of the government should be as accurate and verified as the work of the blockchain.

IBM and blockchain: what is the giant's interest?

IBM and blockchain: what is the giant's interest?



For more than a century of its existence, IBM has become a large-scale multinational giant, which gained well-deserved fame due to the production of high-quality computer hardware and software.

IBM and blockchain

Following Google and Amazon, recently immersed in the blockchain industry, IBM decided to keep up and invest a truly huge amount of money in innovative technology.

Currently, IBM has more than 1,500 employees engaged in 500 blockchain-based projects from various spheres of life, including banking, logistics, health and food safety.

The Corporation has recently partnered with Columbia University scientists to explore new uses of technology. The Center of research, education and innovation in the field of blockchain technology and data transparency was established on the basis of the educational institution. The center leverages Columbia University's academic strengths in science and technology, business and law, combined with IBM's extensive research and development experience.

At the end of August 2018, IBM launched a platform based on the Stellar Protocol that provides instant cross-border payments. The platform is available to 97% of the largest banks that are IBM customers.

After numerous high-profile events of the past year, including the scandal with the data of Facebook-Cambridge Analytica (millions of profiles of users of the popular social network were used without the consent of their owners for political purposes), the blockchain division of IBM has made a lot of efforts in the field of independent sovereign identification. The ultimate goal of this project is to guarantee users reliable protection of their personal data.

IBM priorities

There are several reasons for IBM's massive interest in blockchain technology.

First of all, it is the indisputable fact that the technology of distributed registers is becoming a mainstream. Research by Gartner (a consulting company specializing in information technology markets) says that by 2025 the value of blockchain business technology will reach $176 billion, and by 2030 will exceed an incredible $3 trillion.

If the forecast turns out to be correct, IBM, as one of the pioneers of the industry, will receive fantastic dividends. The company is well aware that the introduction of innovative technology greatly improves the efficiency of business processes.

Among the areas with the greatest potential should be noted:

Supply chain management. With the help of distributed registry technology, it is possible to achieve economic efficiency, simplify the production process, accelerate and transparency of payments, transfer of property rights.

Quality control. The technology allows you to quickly identify the source of any irregularities in the supply chain. Investigations in this case take less time and money. And some production areas, such as the food industry, thus acquire a new level of safety.

Application of "smart contracts". Any company with their help will save significant money by reducing the number of intermediaries and the ability to automatically implement all stages of the agreement.

Based on this, IBM has identified three industries that will bring the greatest dividends in the future: health, Finance and shipping. These are very massive areas, and investments should be appropriate.

What is the risk to IBM
There has been a lot of talk about blockchain lately. Technology raspiarili in the media and seems to be a panacea for all ills. On the other hand, there is a whole army of skeptics who do not appreciate innovation and doubt its prospects, and some even believe that the technology is dangerous. Both positions are reasonable, since the society is only at the beginning of the road and has not yet come to the end to realize what application the blockchain will find in the future.

However, IBM is among those corporations that are safely pushing the boundaries of business, if we are talking about the innovative projects. Evidence of this is more than a century of activity of the company. On hearing all the story of the creation of the supercomputer Watson. The project, which began in 2006, did not bring the expected profit, but made a breakthrough in the field of artificial intelligence. And although investors believe that the dividends from the supercomputer, they will not see at least a few years, the development of AI does not stop.

Probably, in order to avoid similar errors, in the situation with the blockchain, the Corporation will act more carefully.

The impact of the project

Distributed registry technology today is as new an area as artificial intelligence. Too little time has passed to be able to objectively assess the scope of the project. There are many angles that need to be ironed out, and many questions that have yet to be answered.

The whole world is building assumptions about when the blockchain will tightly enter the life of society. But even if the new technology is soon integrated into the sphere of interests of millions of users, IBM will see positive financial results much later.

How much effort and money IBM will invest in the development of projects based on the blockchain and their popularization, largely depends on the mass introduction of technology in all spheres of life. Such open innovation giants like IBM eventually change the world.

And if at the same time the company will work on the errors with Watson and make the right alignment, it will receive an undeniable advantage over competitors in the use of blockchain technology for a long time.

Not only Telegram: 3 giant messengers that launch their own blockchain

Not only Telegram: 3 giant messengers that launch their own blockchain



ICO Telegram did not become a record in the number of funds collected — in this nomination, the palm remains in the hands of EOS. However, the telegram blockchain project can surely be called the most mysterious - since the first rumors about the TON platform appeared in December last year, two reports for the SEC on conducted private sales, two white paper, an agreement with investors have been leaked to the network — and there has been no official statement on this matter. But not all projects are so secretive. DeCenter considered the blockchain platform of three major messengers, in addition to Telegram.

Messenger

Payments in the messenger-it's fashionable
Payment system integrated in social networks and messengerby application is not uncommon: Facebook Payments, which was launched in June VK Pay (and short-lived in 2010, "RUR Vkontakte"), WeChat Pay under the largest Chinese instant messenger WeChat, Kakao Pay in South Korea's Kakao Talk, Line Pay inside the Japanese Line messenger.

The mechanics of attraction of such platforms in the payment sphere is clear: messengers with multi-million user coverage (WeChat this figure exceeds 1 billion) should not be engaged in the promotion of its payment solution — a significant starting audience and so it will be. Now it's "for small" - to transfer these systems to the crypto-level. And here, again, the advantage is on the side of the giants. For example, what is officially known about Telegram is its number of users: in March, as the authors of white paper TON supposed, this number exceeded 200 million. "These users can provide the critical mass needed to push cryptocurrencies to widespread adoption," the project's white paper says. However, large Asian messengers do not lag behind Telegram in terms of the number of active users and the development of blockchain systems, and someone even ahead.

Kakao Talk

Country: South Korea

Year of Foundation: 2010

Number of active users per month: about 50 million (as of the end of 2017)

Payment solution: WeChat Pay (since 2013)

Blockchain platform: Klaytn

Cryptocurrency: KLAY

Other crypto-projects: upbit cryptocurrency exchange

"Parent" Kakao Talk, the South Korean Internet Corporation Kakao, officially announced the ongoing blockchain developments in March this year. The company opened a special blockchain division of Ground X and promised to introduce the platform during 2018. CEO of Kakao yo su-Yun said that Ground X will also be engaged in the implementation of blockchain solutions in the existing products of the company.

Without inherent blockchain projects hitches and delays, the company kept its word: in a press release dated October 8, Cocoa announced the launch of the testnet, which is already available to 10 invited partners. According to the published white paper, the Klaytn platform is a hybrid blockchain that combines the functions of private and public blockchain. This is achieved through the use of two types of gcd — consensus (CN) and Ranger (or "gcd-Wanderers", RN).

CN nodes are managed by invited partners. This part of the blockchain is private and uses the Byzantine generals problem (BFT) algorithm. At the same time, any user can connect to the network as an RN node: they will re-check the blocks transmitted to the network by consensus nodes. "Ranger nodes load newly created blocks from consensus nodes and periodically communicate with each other, while keeping a local copy of the blockchain. They confirm that new units, the selected CN nodes, and checks that the consensus nodes never forged the height of a certain block", — stated in the white paper Ground X.

The hybrid network device has improved not only security, but also scalability: the block propagation interval is less than one second, and the throughput is 1500 transactions per second.

In order to encourage participants to maintain the network, Klaytn will distribute 10 billion KLAY tokens to holders of both types of nodes on a Pro rata basis based on their contribution (additional tokens will be issued annually for block rewards).

At the moment, Klaytn is a proprietary blockchain (with closed-source SOFTWARE), but Ground X promised to publish the open source code of the project at a later stage and reported that the launch of the main Klaytn network is scheduled for the first quarter of 2019.

Despite the rumors that appeared in March, the company did not and is not going to conduct an ICO, and all projects called Kakao Coin simply used the name of the popular company and turned out to be fraudulent.

Line

country Japan

Year of Foundation: 2011

Number of active users per month: more than 200 million

Payment solution: Line Pay (since 2014)

Blockchain platform: Link

Cryptocurrency: LINK

Other crypto-projects: BitBox cryptocurrency exchange; plans to create a $ 10 million tokenized Fund to support blockchain and cryptocurrencies.

Japanese messenger giant Line has overtaken its "relatives" and has already launched its own blockchain and cryptocurrency LINK. The company reported about it on August 31, at the same time having told that the Genesis block was extracted on August 23.

Tokens will be used as a means of payment in the Line ecosystem. The total issue of LINK will be 1 billion, of which 800 million will go to users, and 200 million will remain in the reserve of the company. Line has abandoned ICO: LINK tokens will be distributed as an incentive when using decentralized applications (dApps) on the LINK blockchain. Takeshi Idezawa, CEO of Line, said that a similar incentive system was developed to facilitate the spread of cryptocurrency, as well as the services and applications that use it. "Over the past 7 years, Line has been able to become a global service thanks to our users, and now, with Link, we want to create a user-friendly reward system to thank our users," Idezawa says.

Currently the blockchain Link there are already three dApps — launched LINE exchange BitBox, platform predictions 4cast and Q&A-service Wizball. At the same time, by the first quarter of 2019, the messenger promises 10 more dApps on its blockchain.

Subsequently, the token can be obtained not only as a reward for the use of dApps, but also to buy on the BitBox exchange. Earlier, the company reported that the token will be added to BitBox in September, but so far it is still not among the traded assets. In addition, due to regulatory issues LINK is not yet available to users from Japan and the United States. At the same time, the Japanese will be able to receive LINK points simply for staying on the platform, and later, when the exchange receives a license from the Japanese regulator — Japan financial services Agency — these points will be exchanged for real tokens. "While Line is engaged in obtaining authority for crypto — currency trading and exchange activities from the regulators of Japan, LINK points can not be deposited, withdrawn, transferred, traded or exchanged on crypto-currency exchanges, including BitBox," the company said.

LINE speaker spoke about the technical side of the platform. It uses two algorithms at once: the delegated proof-of-stake and the Byzantine generals problem (BFT). "We need fast confirmation of [transactions] for a service-oriented blockchain platform," the company representative said.

WeChat

Country: China

Year of Foundation: 2011

Number of active users per month: 1.04 billion

Payment solution: WeChat Pay (from 2013 in China; from 2017 available in Europe)

Blockchain platform: TrustSQL

Cryptocurrency: no

Other blockchain projects: Intelligent Tax research center, established in cooperation with the national tax office of Shenzhen. Within the framework of the project, the blockchain will be used to solve the problem of tax evasion.

The owner of the messenger, Chinese investment holding Tencent, announced work on his own blockchain project in April 2017. And this summer the company started testing its blockchain platform TrustSQL inside the wechat messenger. Information about this appeared in the official blog of the company on August 10.

Tencent uses blockchain to speed up the process of employee reimbursement. The first testing of the system took place in the restaurant in Shenzhen the guest has paid the service through WeChat Pay, then the payment information has been transferred on the blockchain, the employer of the guest, in the restaurant itself, as well as in the tax administration of Shenzhen. In Tencent announced that it has eliminated the delay commonly found when applying for a refund "manually", as well as the possibility of falsification checks.

At the moment, in China, the process of obtaining various corporate compensation is extremely complicated. The country uses different types of checks for individuals and companies. When employees need to be reimbursed for expenses (for example, on business trips), they must request a check for the companies with their employer's taxpayer number. To do this, in turn, the seller must manually print the taxpayer number on each copy of the check. Other necessary mechanistic actions — the collection of checks and the submission of an appropriate application for reimbursement-also require additional time and effort, while the blockchain allows to make this process completely transparent and unhindered.

The first players who joined the testing of the blockchain, include Parking for Shenzhen "Bamboo" stadium, car service and restaurant owned by Tencent.